When you pedal a typical bike, it moves ahead. When you pedal, cranks and gears engage with the bike's wheels to turn them. The rider's physical effort is what propels the bike forward.

What about a powered bike, though? It is a little unique. Even though the electric motor helps you move the bike along, you can still pedal and get terrific exercise. An e-bike differs from a standard bike due to its motor. An e-bike consists of several parts that work together to function properly.

Learning about the various components might help you know what to look for when purchasing an e-bike if you are thinking about doing so. Even if you own an e-bike, the following details are still valuable: Knowing the conversion kit will help you maintain it if you need to purchase replacement parts. This article describes the function and operation of the primary electric bike parts.


heybike motor controller

Your electric bike central control system, or E-bike controller, manages and controls numerous aspects of its operation. Its primary function is to make the connections between the power supply, motor, and sensors easier, resulting in a more efficient system. A circuit board in the controller controls the input and output of voltage and amperage, controlling vital operations that are significant to the functionality of your e-bike.

In short, the e-bike controller takes power from the battery and uses user inputs and data from sensors, distributing it to the motor. It constantly tracks battery voltage, bike speed, motor power, pedal movement, and more.

Battery Pack

The battery, which serves as an electric bike's power source, is often the most expensive component of an e-bike system. Early e-bike batteries were typically lead acid, nickel cadmium, or nickel metal hydride (NiMH), while modern e-bike batteries are nearly entirely lithium-ion. The development of lithium battery technology led to improvements in weight, power, dependability, and cycle life.

The top-quality lithium batteries are 8–10 times lighter and last for well over 5–6 years when used responsibly than the lead batteries of the past. Heybike e-bike lithium-ion batteries are TUV-certified in compliance with UL 2849. The Heybike batteries have been certified to meet crucial electrical and fire safety criteria.


Thumb Throttle of Heybike bicycle

A throttle assist feature on some e-bikes propels the bike ahead even while you are not pedaling. The handlebar-mounted throttle assist directly powers the motor, enabling it to operate at its full potential and enabling your e-bike to attain its top speeds.

A thumb-operated switch on the e-bikes made by Heybike turns on the throttle assistance. Engaging the throttle limits the bike's range since it consumes more engine and battery power. For instance, the pedal assist range on the Heybike Cityrun bike is 55 miles, but the throttle assist range is 40 miles.

Learn more about power modes: Throttle vs Pedal-Assist


The bike's frame connects all the parts, from the motor to the brakes, pedals, and other parts. There are several bike frames, including electric mountain bike (MTB) frames and road bike frames. For regular bikers, there are two types of bike frames: step-through and high-step. The bike frame you choose affects rideability, like how easy it is to get on and off the bike.

Step Through

The Ranger S low-step electric bicycle

In contrast to step-over or high-step bikes, which have an additional frame tube running from below the handlebars to the rear wheel, you have to step over that tube to get on the bike with step-through bike frames. The obvious benefit of step-through bikes is that they are easy to get on and off, making them ideal for people with limited mobility. Since they do not require wild acrobatics, they are also a good choice for people with disabilities.


The Sola Step Over e-bike on the city road

High-step e-bikes have an extra frame tube that extends from the back wheel under the handlebars of the bike. The result is that the bike's frame is either diamond- or triangle-shaped. You must swing a leg up and over the back and bike seat to mount the bike seat.
Due to the additional frame tube, high-step e-bikes are more robust and typically lighter. High-step bikes are more suitable for difficult terrain because of their durability.

E-Bike Motor

The electric motor converts electrical energy from the battery into mechanical power to propel the bike. There are several possible locations for the motor on an e-bike. With a hub motor, the electric motor is located inside the front or rear bike hub, making it very easy to convert a standard bike to one with a powered wheel.

These days, permanent magnet Brushless DC (BLDC) motors with three-phase wires for power delivery make up many e-bike motors. They often also feature five hall sensor wires, which enable the electronics to determine the location of the motor so that it can spin smoothly at low speed, in addition to the three-phase wires needed to power the hub. 

Check out 'How to Choose an Electric Bicycle Motor' on our blog.

Gear Shifter

shimano 7-speed shifter

The installed shifting system determines the procedure for changing gears on a bike. An enclosed steel cable links the gear levers to the derailleur or derailleurs. The gear shifter must either pull the cable in (producing tension) or release the cable (causing slack) to move the derailleur.

Most new e-bikes have the shifters mounted to the handlebars. Some antique bicycles feature shifters mounted on the downtube or at the very ends of handlebars designed for racing.

Check out our beginner's guide to shifting gears on an electric bike for a smoother ride!

Disc Brakes

Close-up view of hydraulic brake on the Heybike Tyson ebike

E-bikes frequently go at higher speeds than conventional bikes, making brakes a crucial component of their safety equipment. Rim brakes, which stop the wheel from turning by clamping down on it, are a brake that is rarely found on e-bikes. In a fast-moving e-bike, applying this kind of force straight to the wheel can be risky.

Mechanical disc brakes and hydraulic disc brakes are the two most popular types of brakes. A mechanical disc braking system uses a cable to control the brake mechanics. A hydraulic brake system uses fluid to change the proportion of force inside the braking system, pulling the brake lever and pushing the brake pads. Heybike brawn Hydraulic-disc brakes provide a better braking effect in any condition. Improve your riding safety, stability, and steerability.

Learn more about mechanical vs. hydraulic disc brakes on our blog.


An e-bike can not move very far without wheels. That said, not all e-bike wheels are created equal. For various riding uses, there are many tire classes. To decrease friction and boost speed, road bike tires, for instance, are thin and light (often no wider than 25 millimeters or 0.98 inches).

Commuting bike tires, on the other hand, are thicker, up to 48 mm, providing additional stability and traction on slick surfaces. MTB tires are wider, fatter, and stiffer for safe riding on grass, dirt, gravel, and sand. There are also hybrid or cyclocross tires that are less substantial than MTB tires but broader than road tires. These typically feature flat, tiny treads with 30 to 33 mm.

Fat Tire

Though less sturdy than MTB or BMX bike tires, fat tire bikes (like Heybike's Mars) offer more stability and durability for off-roading. However, big tire e-bikes have superior puncture protection and less pressure than commuter bikes, allowing you to ride them on surfaces like gravel walks.

Learn more how to repair a flat tire so you can enjoy nature rides without interruption.

Lighting System

the headlight of heybike ev bike

Electric bike lights are compact lights that can be quickly and easily mounted to your bike. While riding in low light or at night, these lights help improve your visibility to traffic and illuminate your way.
Front bike lights, like car headlights, emit a white light, while rear bike or tail lights, which increase your visibility from behind, emit a red light. Batteries that are either rechargeable or reusable power these lights.


Close-up view of Mars fender

Riding in the dead of winter or the pouring rain may be terrible because the elements are whipping your bike and body from the sky and the earth. Thankfully, fenders can protect you from the spray of water, muck, and filth, making riding in bad weather much more tolerable.

There is no doubting the benefits of running a pair of fenders, even though some riders might be hesitant to install them on their bike since they care more about the aesthetics of their prized possession.

How to choose the perfect fender on your bike?

If you are shopping for a fender, there are a few factors to consider. The first is making sure the coverage is appropriate for your needs. While a longer fender will be better at directing water and preventing it from spraying up. For road and mountain biking, various lengths are available, including shorter, less noticeable variants.

The fender's stiffness and construction quality are also crucial. You do not want your brand-new mudguards to break down too soon or to start rattling and rubbing against your tire while you ride. Cheap plastic and metal, more expensive carbon fiber, and even wood are all possible building materials for bike fenders. Like many other things, the price of a mudguard can serve as a reliable gauge of its quality.

Finally, and most crucially, how a bike fender is installed will impact how effective it is when it is used. Most of the time, your neighborhood bike shop can mount the guards if you are uncomfortable installing them yourself.

Check out our Complete guide: How to Choose the Perfect Fender for Your Bike?

Digital Display

heybike digital display

On contemporary e-bikes, the battery level is visible on an LCD screen. Like a speedometer on a car, an e-bike LCD can also display your bike's speed and the distance you have traveled. It is beneficial for monitoring battery life and scheduling rides and goals (for instance, if you want to ride a specific number of miles daily).
You may modify the pedal assist and throttle assist on the e-bike display. You may also control the bike's lighting and backlights, which are helpful safety features.


The e-bike pedals are what link you to the bike. You start the gear system, which rotates the bike's wheels and propels it forward by depressing the pedals. The most popular kind of flat pedals do not require special footwear.
MTB pedals, on the other hand, keep your foot firmly attached to the pedal, assisting you in maintaining touch (and control) when bouncing over uneven terrain.

PAS and Torque Sensors

Pedal assist sensor of heybike accessory
A PAS or torque sensor allows you to pedal to control the e-bike instead of using your hands to manage the motor power. When you spin the pedals, cadence PAS sensors on an existing crankset provide information to the bike. Torque sensors, on the other hand, typically require altering the bottom bracket and measuring how you are pedaling and how hard you are pushing.

It is hard to forecast whether a given motor controller will have an input for a PAS or torque sensor, much less one that matches the signal level of a specific sensor and throttles. There is very little standardization on how the data from these sensors should function.

Finally, based on your riding style, individual tastes, and needs, you should decide on cadence and torque sensors. The cadence sensors could be the best choice for a smooth and comfortable ride. A torque sensor is a better choice if you desire a more tailored and natural ride that responds to how hard you pedal.
Test models with both types of sensors to see which electric bike best satisfies your riding needs and gives you the right amount of assistance and control.


close-up view of heybike seatport

A bike seatpost is a tube that joins the bike frame and saddle. Saddleposts, saddlepoles, saddle pins, and saddle pillars are additional names for seatposts. From the bike frame, a seatpost emerges, which is adjustable. It is crucial to have the proper Seatpost to get the most out of your ride and avoid long-term lower back pain.


The seat is the other crucial element that joins you, the biker, to the e-bike. There are three main categories of saddle: Racing, Cruiser, and Comfort seats or saddles.

  • The racing saddle reduces chafing and increases aerodynamics by moving your weight forward.
  • Saddles for cruisers encourage a more upright posture. They often have a wider, thicker cushion.
  • The last type of saddle is a comfort saddle, which a regular cyclist may use. These typically look smaller than cruiser saddles but provide enough padding for a pleasant ride.


To accommodate various riding styles, Heybike provides a variety of electric bikes. The Heybike's Cityrun e-bike is a practical type that is great for everyday use, from commuting to work to working out. You can ride an off-road electric bike with fat tires thanks to the Heybike's Mars.

The Heybike has different-sized soft cushioned comfortable ergonomic seats. A quick-release clamp secures the seat to an aluminum alloy seat post. Adjustable seats provide a strong shock absorption effect.

Heybike e-bikes have a high-quality lithium battery, Shimano hydraulic disc brakes, and security features like lighting. Additionally, our frames undergo extensive quality testing, and our batteries are TUV-certified in compliance with UL 2849.

You may choose an e-bike wisely by having a fundamental understanding of its important components. It is important to get these aspects right to guarantee that your e-biking experience is practical, pleasant, and appropriate for your needs, from choosing the right motor type to selecting the ideal frame.

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